ABRAHAM (c. 1500BCE - c. 2000 BCE)


According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was born under the name Abram in the city of Ur in Babylonia in the year 1948 BCE from Creation.He was the son of Terach, an idol merchant, but from his early childhood, he questioned the faith of his father and sought the truth.

Abram tried to convince his father, Terach, of the folly of idol worship. One day, when Abram was left alone to mind the store, he took a hammer and smashed all of the idols except the largest one. He placed the hammer in the hand of the largest idol. When his father returned and asked what happened, Abram said, "The idols got into a fight, and the big one smashed all the other ones." His father said, "Don't be ridiculous. These idols have no life or power. They can't do anything." Abram replied, "Then why do you worship them?"

The true God called to him, and made him an offer he could not refuse after he had been thrown into the fire with his brother who died, : if Abram would leave his home and his family, then God would make him a great nation and bless him. Abram accepted this offer, and the b'rit (covenant) between G-d and the Jewish people was established. (Gen.12).

The idea of b'rit is fundamental to traditional Judaism: we have a covenant, a contract, with G-d, which involves rights and obligations on both sides. We have certain obligations to G-d, and G-d has certain obligations to us. The terms of this b'rit became more explicit over time, until the time of the Giving of the.Torah. Abram was subjected to ten tests of faith to prove his worthiness for this covenant. Leaving his home is one of these trials.

Abram, raised as a city-dweller, adopted a nomadic lifestyle, traveling through what is now the land of Israel for many years. G-d promised this land to Abram's descendants. Abram is referred to as the first Hebrew (Ivri), possibly because he was descended from Eber or possibly because he came from the "other side" (eber) of the Euphrates River.

But Abram was concerned, because he had no children and he was growing old. Abram's beloved wife,Sari, knew that she was past child-bearing years, so she offered her maidservant, Hagar, as a wife to Abram. This was a common practice in the region at the time. According to tradition, . Hager despised Sari and subsequently ill-treated her. As a result she ran away from home into the desert where an angel found her near a spring, the angle told her" You are now with child and you will have a son. You shall name him Ismael,
He will be a wild donkey of a man; his hand will be against everyone and everyone's hand against him, and will live in hostility towards all his brothers.
Hagar bore , Ishmael, who, according to both Muslim and Jewish tradition, is the ancestor of the Arabs. (Gen.16)

When Abram was 100 and Sarai 90, G-d promised Abram a son by Sarai. G-d changed Abram's name to Abraham (father of many), and Sarai's to Sarah (from "my princess" to "princess"). Sarah bore Abraham a son, Isaac. Isaac was the ancestor of the Jewish people.

[Abraham died at the age of 175.]


Abraham is known to be the first Hebrew and the ancestor of the Jews.

There is no known account of his life independent of Genesis, so it is not possible to know if he was a historical or fable figure. If he was, he probably lived between 1500 BC and 2000 BC : Around the same time as the birth of the ancient Hindu religion ,Brahman which could intelligently spell Abraham .

Judaism, Christianity and Islam ( Tulmud , Bible and Quran ) are sometimes referred to as the "Abrahamic religions",due there origins to Abram and later known as Abraham the father of the People of Israel the through his son Isaac; the Jews and his son Ishmael the Arabs. In Islam, Abraham is considered to be one of the most important of the many prophets sent by God.

His original name was Abram ;. Later in life he went by the name Abraham. (See Genesis 17).
often glossed as "father of many (nations)" per Genesis 17:5,

According to the Bible, Abraham was brought by God from Mesopotamia to the land of Canaan. There he entered into a covenant: in exchange for sole recognition of Yahweh as supreme universal deity and authority, Abraham will be blessed with innumerable progeny. ( children )

Abraham origins

The account of his life is found in the Book of Genesis, beginning in Chapter 11, at the close of a genealogy of the sons of Shem (which includes among its members Eber,

His father Terah came from Ur of the Chaldees, the ancient city in southern Mesopotamia which was under the rule of the Chaldeans — They also say "Chaldees" refers to a group of gods called Khaldis. Yahweh called Abram to go to "the land I will show you", and promised to bless him and make him a great nation. Trusting this promise, Abram journeyed down to Shechem, and at the sacred tree received a new promise that the land would be given unto his seed (descendant or descendants). Having built an altar to commemorate and called upon the name of Yahweh (Gen. 12:1-9).

Jewish authorities like Maimonides all concur that Ur-Of-The-Khaldis was in Northern Mesopotamia — now southeastern Turkey (identified with Urartu, Urfa, and Kutha respectively). This is in accord with the local tradition that Abraham was born in Urfa, or with the nearby Urkesh, which others identify with “Ur of the Chaldees”.

Kid Sacrificial Offering

Some time after the birth of Isaac, Abraham was commanded by God to offer his son up as a sacrifice in the land of Moriah. The patriarch traveled three days until he came to the mount that God showed him, Isaac carrying the wood upon which he would be sacrificed. Along the way, Isaac repeatedly asked Abraham where the animal for the burnt offering was. Abraham then replied that God would provide one. Just as Abraham was about to sacrifice his son, he was prevented by an angel, and given on that spot a ram which he sacrificed in place of his son. As a reward for his obedience he received another promise of a numerous seed and abundant prosperity

The near sacrifice of Isaac is one of the most challenging, and perhaps ethically troublesome, parts of the Bible. Although not un heard of, human sacrifice in canaanis is rare, animal sacrifice for religious purposes are made frequently by many tribes .




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